Symptoms of Prostate Cancer and How to Treat It

Written by HDI Forum

Prostate cancer is cancer that begins in the prostate gland. The prostate is a tiny, walnut-sized structure which wraps around the urethra generating up the part of a man’s reproductive system which generates a fluid that tends to make up part of semen.

Typically, a tumor grows gradually and remains confined towards the gland for a lot of years. During this time, the tumor produces tiny to no symptoms or outward signs.

Some aggressive kinds of this cancer development and spread far more quickly than other people and may trigger a significant shortening of life expectancy in guys impacted by them.

Prostate Cancer Symptoms

Prostate cancer symptoms, in one line, are hardest to determine than all other diseases. The bacteria responsible for this disease come out so small that they remain invisible to all. If anyone doesn’t know the possible symptoms’, then it would be a risk for him. There remains also the probability of attacking by severe germs and diseases which are injurious to human health.

Normally its start with complication in the urinary system. The sufferer feels pain in organ and flow of urine is abnormal. But, these symptoms are not enough to determine to prostate cancer. One can also fail to control his bladder for this disease.

Next prostate cancer symptom may be in failing to keep up an erection. At the time of sex, man feels pain in his organ. It has also Possibility of blood coming out with urine and semen. It is harmful to men because his future generation will be affected for this.

Very common prostate cancer symptoms are: – trouble urine passing, blood in urine, pain at time of urinating, pain in hips, thighs, lower back, slow flow in urine, persistent pain in lower back, increase the rate of urinate, problems in initiation at time of urination, feeling pain during urination, loss of control over beginning and ending of urine flow, having feels of full bladder all times even it is empty, blood come out with urine, painful ejaculation, weight loss and some other symptoms.

Various Treatments for Prostate Cancer

Hormone Therapy

Another option for treating prostate cancer involves using therapy to stop the body’s production of testosterone. Given that prostate cancer cells need testosterone to expand, removing their supply of testosterone could usually be an effective therapy for prostate cancer cells. This type of treatment is often used for advanced cases of prostate cancer to shrink tumors and slow down their growth or in early stages of the disease as a preparation for radiation therapy.

Hormone therapy typically involves the use of drugs to either stop the patient’s testicles from producing testosterone or prevent testosterone from reaching the cancerous cells. In extreme cases, the testicles can be surgically removed in a procedure called an orchiectomy. This lowers the patient’s testosterone levels much more quickly than most medications.

Some of the side effects of hormone therapy include erectile dysfunction, loss of bone mass, hot flashes, weight gain and a reduced sex drive. It could additionally raise the danger of heart disease and cardiac arrest.

Radiation Therapy for the Prostate

If a patient’s prostate cancer is indeed spreading, it will require some form of treatment. One option for prostate cancer treatment that has proven effective for many patients is radiation therapy. Radiation therapy entails the usage of high-powered radiation to eliminate cancer cells and it could be provided to the client’s body in either method by which. The very first is external beam radiation during which the sick person lays down on a desk while a device points high-powered energy beams to the man’s prostate cancer. The other form of radiation therapy is delivered through a process called brachytherapy. In brachytherapy, rice-sized radioactive seeds are implanted into the prostate tissue using an ultrasound-guided needle. Because the seeds eventually decay and stop giving off radiation, they don’t need to be removed.

Some of the side effects of radiation therapy include painful or frequent urination, loose stools, and erectile dysfunction. There is also the small chance that the radiation could trigger cancer in the rectum, bladder or other parts of the body.

Prostate Cancer Surgery

Prostate cancer can also be treated through the surgical removal of the prostate and the surrounding tissue. This is a very invasive procedure that can be performed in a number of different ways. Your doctor will be able to help you decide what method is best for you should you require this treatment. Adverse effects could consist of urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction.

How to Detect Colon Cancer and Treat It Efficiently

Written by HDI Forum

This article hits home a bit, because I had an aunt that was one stage before terminal colon cancer.

Luckily she survived, but she had to undergo major surgeries and if she was diagnosed a few weeks later, she most likely would have died.

So make sure you understand what colon cancer is and how to reduce the risk of it.

This article aims to do just that.

What is Your Colon and Colon Cancer?

Colon is a muscular, tube-shaped organ located at the lower part of your digestive system. It makes up the main portion of the large intestine. The organ has a key role in helping the body taking in nutrients, water, and minerals. It also helps in removing waste of the body in the form of stool.

Colon cancer is the growth of malignant tumor in the tissue of the colon (in the inner wall of the organ). It is somewhat different from rectal cancer, which is located at the last few inches of the colon (rectum). When left untreated, colon cancer can eventually spread to distant organs all over the body.

Why are the symptoms of Colon Cancer?

Signs and symptoms of colon cancer are visible during the late years. Those who are experiencing these symptoms should immediately consult a doctor for proper diagnosis.

Ignoring such signs and symptoms and without the immediate and proper diagnosis, the appropriate management for the illness cannot be started in due time and there are possibilities that these might lead to complications or metastasis.

WebMD has a great list of symptoms as well.

Change in Bowel Habits

Tumor in the bowel brings an observed change in the habits like defecating. With the growth of tumor, you may feel the need of defecating less often and the large size of tumor will lead to constipation.

The only way to know this is to get regular screening done instead of waiting for the symptoms to appear on the surface.

Thinned Stool

The presence of tumor causes obstruction and with the growth of obstruction there is reduction in the space around. In case the tumor is present at the side of the colon tube passage, it may result into the narrowing of the stool.

Cramping or Bloating in the Stomach

Another symptom in the list of colon cancer symptoms is bloating or cramping in the stomach. Boating may be due to a bowel obstruction while cramping may be the result of constipation or diarrhea. In the advanced stages of colon cancer, tumor perforating i.e. poking through near the wall of the bowel, can lead to extreme abdominal cramping.

Blood in the Stool

There may be blood in the stool which is due to the bleeding of the tumor. Nevertheless, if the tumor is present in the right colon, it is very much possible that the blood will dry up before the faeces are removed from the body. But if it is towards the left or in the rectum, it may remain fresh and thus will appear bright red.

Inexplicable Weight Loss

If you are losing weight without making any deliberate efforts, it is really something to ponder over. Often one has weight loss due to the fact that something wrong is going in the body. However, in colorectal cancer, unexplained loss in weight is one of the colon cancer symptoms and it indicates that the bowel is being blocked at some place, along the passage, by a tumor.

Exhaustion and Feelings of Fatigue

You are having proper sleep but still feel exhausted. There may be more than one reason and work load may not be the obvious one. The first possibility is that it may be due to anemia which takes place if the red blood cells are not able to carry sufficient oxygen as much they are required to. Consequently, you might feel exhausted. But it may also be due to tumors. Tumors can also be the cause of anemia.

Feel Like to Defecate but Not

You may feel like to go for defecation but you do not. This kind of sensation in the body may take place due to a tumor growing in the end of the colon or rectum.

Although colon cancer may have numerous symptoms, in the early stages of the disease many suffering from colon cancer experience no symptoms. When the symptoms appear, they tend to vary, depending on the location and size of the cancer in the large intestine. Unfortunately the symptoms of colon cancer are not always obvious. For that reason, it is important for you to learn what the cancer symptoms look and feel like, so you can be aware of the disease for your long-term health.

How to Effectively Treat Colon Cancer

Chemotherapy or radiation may follow the surgical procedure if there is any chance that cancer cells were missed or thought to be in other areas of your body. Chemotherapy medications are administered either through an IV or through a pill form. The medication kills and controls cancerous cells. If colon cancer is caught at early onset, and presents very small and isolated, your doctor may consider using just chemotherapy or radiation to eliminate the cancer.

Depending on the size of the cancer, location, overall general health, and in what stage the cancer was detected will play a factor into what type of treatment will be discussed with you through your doctor. The most common method of colon cancer treatment is surgical removal often followed by chemo or radiation is it is felt there is any risk of cancerous cells remaining. Surgical removal of cancer in the colon often results in a temporary or permanent colostomy. Your surgeon will remove the cancer from your colon along with a certain percentage of healthy colon on each side of the cancerous growth. They will then reattach the colon. In many cases, if the cancer is not caught at onset, the surgeon will have to remove quiet a large section of the colon leading to the need of a permanent colostomy bag. A colostomy bag becomes the new exit for your bodies waste. Sometimes a patient will have to wear a temporary colostomy bag to give the colon the proper time needed to heal successfully.

Biological therapy is also being offered to patients with colon cancer. It is still on a research basis treatment; however, researches have been seeing significant results. Biologic therapy works with your body’s immune system to eliminate cancer cells. Currently there are several different types of biological therapy being tested including interferons, interleukins, colony stimulating factors, monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, gene therapy, and nonspecific immune-modulating agents. Biological therapy can be used in conjunction of more traditional means of therapy, or depending on the stage. The different types of biologic therapies, in theory, are a means to wake up your own immune system to recognize the cancer cells as being a foreign object in your system and fight them off much like your immune system does when you get a virus. Most of the biologic therapies are used to stop the growth of cancer cells, or control or suppress the growth.

Radiation therapy uses ionizing radiation to control malignant cancer cells either before or after surgery, or both. It can also be done solely if the colon cancer is caught early. Before surgery, it is generally used to control and/or minimize the size of the tumor to make removal of the tumor easier. After surgery it s used to eradicate any existing cancer cells that may still be present. The ionized radiation is applied directly to the tumor and a small amount of the surrounding healthy tissue to ensure that the entire tumor is treated.

If you fall in the risk factors of colon cancer such as over the age of 50, previous history of cancer, family history, or other colon/rectal related problems make sure you get regular checkups. Early detection is essential in the battle of colon cancer.

If faced with colon cancer, educate yourself to all of the options available to you and discuss them in detail with your doctor.

 

 

A Deeper Look at Adderall and Its Effects

Written by HDI Forum

Are you going through concentration problems which are adversely affecting your performance level?

Even if you still try your level best you cannot concentrate?

Then it is the really high time that you take the sustenance of concentration pills.

This is the only one way out through which you can not only concentrate well but you can even perform well in every task that you are given to do.

If you are having a thought in your mind that you are the first and one and only human being in the entire globe that is going through concentration problem then you are absolutely wrong.

This is because there are countless people all over who is even going through the very same problem.

For people just like you who are even going through concentration problem, doxiderol concentration pills are designed in order to aid you through your problem.

Adderall concentration pills will aid you to focus and increase your concentration level.

These pills are made by primary plants and even vitamins.

These pills contain no side effects.

So if you are facing concentration problems then go for the best concentration pills which contain certain vitamins such as C, B, and E.

These pills will not only aid you to concentrate but it will even keep your brain active and focused.

Adderall is known as a smart drug.

But scientists refer to them as cognitive enhancers (nootropics).

As a result, Adderall alternative is one of the most common drugs that are utilized by most of the school and college students.

What is Adderall Originally Supposed to be Used For?

But it is always advisable to consult the doctor before taking Adderall alternative.

Just like Ritalin, Adderall is prescribed for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder which is even known as ADHD.

The main function of this particular drug is that it assists students along with adults to concentrate well.

If you want to take natural Adderall alternatives then it is none other than doxiderol.

What are the Effects of Adderall?

The longer you utilize this particular drug the more likely you turn out to be dependent.

It is the fact that these days most of the people do go through problems related to concentration, focus and much more.

This is one of the main motives why these pills are turning out to be popular day after day.

Doxiderol will not only give you the short term benefits to focus well but it will even give you a massive amount of long-term positive effects and it is a drug with no side effects.

What are the Practical Applications of Adderall?

While studying or working do you find your mind wandering about? If yes then you need to take supplements for concentration.

Supplements for concentration are natural cognitive enhancers that have the potential to trick your brain into concentrating on the particular job at hand, increasing alertness along with mental clarity.

Taking good supplements for concentration can aid you to reach your destination.

These supplements have no side effects and they assist you to concentrate well and even it increases your brain power and keeps your brain healthy.

So do not waste time as it is very precious to everyone and purchase these supplements immediately.

What is Testicular Cancer? A Guide

Article by HDI Forum

When a human being is conceived, normally a sperm cell and an ovum cell combine to become one, and it starts dividing itself into more and more cells, which make the human body.

There are thousands of these cells, so they keep dying as new ones are generated so there aren’t too many.

If the body for any reason stops functioning this way, it could mean the person has cancer.

How Does Testicular Cancer Occur in Males?

Cancer happens when old cells do not die and new ones are over produced, eventually causing a cluster of cells which is referred to as a tumor.

This is the cause of most cancers.

The testicles have a cell called the germ cell.

This cell is responsible for creating immature sperm.

Although the cause of testicular cancer is not known, testicular cancer starts from the germ cell.

There are tumors that are not cancerous, benign tumors, and ones that are cancerous, the malignant tumors.

While cells in the former do not spread to other organs, the latter cells can spread to the whole body and cause a new cancer from the original.

So it is very important to treat cancer in its early stages, by detecting it early through its symptoms.

Statistics show that 68% of men are diagnosed before it spreads to the testicles.

When detected at this stage, there is a 99% chance of survival.

The Symptoms of Testicular Cancer

Here are the symptoms that you need to look out for to detect testicular cancer.

  • Gathering of fluid in the scrotum.
  • Pain in the groin area – There could be cramping in the lower abdomen.
  • Abnormal development of the testicle.
  • Inflamed testicle – This is the most common sign.
  • Discomfort -A general change in how the testicle feels or looks.
  • Family history – A lot of times, having cancer is due to a history of it being in the blood line.
  • Age – Testicular cancer is more rampant in men of between 15 and 44 years.
  • Mild ache in the back.
  • History of cryptorchidism – This happens when testes fail to descend in the scrotum before birth.

As much as the death rates of cancer have declined, the cases of cancer have rapidly increased.

Chances of survival are higher when cancer is diagnosed early.

This is done by;

  • Biopsy -This is done when a cell is extracted from a living body to look for a disease.
  • Checking tumor markers – These are normal, but increased levels suggest abnormalities, which might be caused by cancer. This is done by a blood test.
  • Ultrasound – This will tell the doctor, whether you have lumps, and where they are located.
  • Inguinal orchiectomy.

Removing the testicle for examination.

The good thing is, cancer is treatable, and there have been advances in medicine that make the mortality rate of patients with cancer, rise.

Some ways to treat testicular cancer are;

  1. Radiation therapy – It involves the use of powerful rays, aimed at the affected area with beams that kill the cancer cells.
  2. Surgery -This can either be to remove the testicle or nearby lymph nodes.
  3. Chemotherapy -This makes use of drugs that kill cancer cells.

Phenibut What it is, Uses and Effects

Written by HDI Forum

Phenibut is a drug that acts on the central nervous system producing a depressant effect resulting in a decrease in anxiety and also giving a relaxing and disinhibitory feeling.

One particular aspect of this sustance is the fact that its quimical formula is similar to that of the GABA acid, resulting in an easy assimilation and absorption in the central nervous system, the previously mencioned GABA, is a natural depressant of the central nervous system, also being the principal neurotransmitter that produces this effect.

This substance comes from Europe, specifically in the Soviet Union in the 1960s, at that time, the demand for a drug that was capable of reducing anxiety without producing somnolence was present.

That was because the substances that were available at the time, apart from reducing anxiety, also makes the ones who take it drowsy, which was not adecuate for jobs that require good attention, this was specially true for astronauts.

Because of its relaxing effects without the drawbacks of making the taker drowsy, this drug was given to the russian cosmonauts as part of their personal medical kit.

Even tho that this substance is used primarily for anxiety reduction, in some countries in Europe and in the United States its main use is as an athletic supplement.

When use as a supplement for athletic purposes, it’s important to know how to use it the right way.

Taking in consideration the amount of positive effects this drug gives (anxiety reduction, calmness, increased sociability, to name a few) its important to know whats the effect you want to get when taking this drug.

Researchs show that different dosages can give different effects to some point, the minimum recomended dosage is usually 250mg and the maximum one 2000mg.

Following this idea, lower dosages between 250 and 800mg per day can give you a relaxing effect and some people even feel more sociable and more stable.

When using this lower dosages, you can take 250 to 300mg two to three times per day, its a good idea to start with a low amount of this product to give the body time to adapt.

In the other spectrum, high dosages (1000 to 2000mg per day) can give you some extra effects compare to the lower ones, the most significant being better sleep.If you decide to take amounts near the maximum recomended, it’s important that you dont exceed 1000mg per serving and up to 2000mg per day.

The servings can be between 500 to 650mg three times in one day, or if you decide, two big servings of 1000mg in one day.

Something to have present when taking this product is the fact that you can overdose when using it, so keep it save, start with a low dosage and built up to a high one, and never go beyond 2000mg per day.

Finally, what effects can you expect after taking this drug (the right way).

As discussed before, some of the effects will depend on how much you take.

The more prevalent are, anxiety reduction, more capacity to focus, feels of being more social and an easier time sleeping which includes better sleep quality also.

If you like to workout, you can be sure that taking the right amounts of this substance can help you in and out of the gym.

That includes, better time focusing during the workouts, better sleep which of course will help you recover faster, and it also may help you being more social, improving this way your social life.

Without a doubt, Phenibut can be a welcoming hand when it comes down to your , sleep time, getting more focus, calm and even being more social.

If you make the choise and want to use this product, do it the right way, and enjoy the benefits that it can give you.

 

Inner Peace-Through Modafinil

Article by HDI Forum

Modafinil which has been effective in promoting alertness and getting rid of memory related problems is a path-breaking find in the world of medicines.

This drug has been approved by the United States’ Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treating certain disorders such as those of narcolepsy, excessive daytime sleepiness, etc.

As reported by the American Air Force, when tried on pilots, there were absolutely no side effects.

A study conducted by them has suggested that at pre- deprivation levels, it can be used to keep the pilots of Helicopters alert and maintain their accuracy for over 40 hours without sleep.

What is Modafinil?

Technically, it is 2-[(Diphenylmethyl) sulfinyl] ace amide.

But, for a layman, however, it is a novel alertness drug which has changed the lives of many.

It is an alertness promoting drug which prevents morning sleepiness and as the description suggests, improves alertness amongst its users.

How is it to be taken?

The prescribed dosage of Modafinil 200 mg is once in a day.

However, a doctor’s prescription should never be ignored.

For conditions not related to the sleep disorder, Modafinil is taken as a single dose in the morning or two doses in the morning and the afternoon.

Modafinil Benefits

Well, there might be an exhaustive list of benefits on paper, but the potential which it raises amongst every individual who has it- is humongous.

A child who sleeps through his class will now be attentive and grasping every single word of the lecture.

By preventing morning sleepiness and improving alertness, every student can become a bright student and every employee- an efficient one.

Human Resource would touch its peak.

Tests have proven that its consumption leads to positive impacts like that of general alertness, better mood, improvement of some aspects of the working of memory like digit manipulation or digit span, etc.

Why You Should Take Modafinil.

Got to your doctor if you have any sleep-related symptoms and get Modafinil 200mg prescribed for yourself.

You will never grieve your decision of buying Modafinil.

This alertness promoting drug can help you to get rid of stress and sleepless nights which are caused by tension and cure many sleep related disorders.

An important safety note about Modafinil

Well, every coin has two sides.

Though this alertness drug will not be a source of constant worry and ill side effects, a tiny percentage of people might face rashes like side effects- which are curable.

So make sure that you have your physician’s prescription before consuming this wonder drug.

Moreover, the fact that it has been prescribed by the Air Force of countries like India and United States and that the FDA has approved it stands testimony to the fact that this wonder drug is for good and is here to stay.

Modafinil is to be used only in cases of sleep disorders and not in any other situation, it must strictly be restricted to narcolepsy or OSA or SWD.

This smart drug has to be consumed only on prescription from the doctor.

And specifically after knowing the history of the patient.

With the help of a Doctor’s correct advice, it can change the lives of millions of those who live around us and are not able to contribute their 100% towards the society.

What is Kratom? Can it benefit you?

Article by HDI Forum

Kratom originates from leaves of a plant found in Southeast Asia.

Presented in the West through Dutch specialists, the plant has been praised for quite a long time due to its therapeutic properties.

Once isolated from the tree, the plant can benefit the body in various ways.

The plant acts as a simple narcotic, diminishing agony, sadness, strain, nervousness and medication withdrawal.

In few people, the relieving impacts of the supplement have been known to lessen chills and fever.

All encompassing doctors, botanists, Ayurvedics, and chiropractors have used Kratom in little measurements to reduce strain and appetite for their clients.

It is additionally right for people to utilize it as powder, supplement, and concentrate for tea.

Medical Benefits of Kratom

Late investigations have demonstrated several ways through which Kratom can treat affections in individuals.

The plant has been demonstrated to bring down pulse, adjust cholesterol levels, and lessen sugar blood levels.

In particular, the supplement has been found to have cancer prevention agent properties.

Cell reinforcements clear the assortment of poisons and moderate oxidation, the procedure that causes aging in people.

Everyone can profit from these cancer-prevention agents and in more than one way.

You can have more energy and increased rebound rates.

The cancer prevention agent advantages of Kratom have turned out to be promising to the point that corrective organizations have really started to utilize the concentrate in their facial items.

The structure of the plant is rich in alkaloids, which fortifies the immune system and controls blood vessel strain.

The plant is likewise high in epicatechin, a cell reinforcement that can likewise be discovered in green tea, dark chocolate, and espresso.

This cancer prevention agent has made the best known medical advantages, and the unmoderated shape found in this supplement can offer a similar medical advantages and against aging.

Truth be told, because of the structure of epicatechin in leaves, this supplement contains 20 times more antioxidants compared to regular green tea.

What are the Positive Effects of Kratom?

This supplement also has fortifying properties.

The reason behind it is that Kratom contains just about 30 unique types of alkaloids.

The blend of a rich alkaloid plant with a cancer prevention agent implies more medical advantages for the purchaser.

What’s more, not at all like most teas, which can lose their cell reinforcement properties when handled and made, you can utilize Kratom in a few shapes while getting similar advantages.

Different advantages of the plant incorporate vitality recuperation and expanded essentialness after physical work.

The plant has additionally been used for upgrading sexual life by drawing out sex and assisting with fervor of men and ladies.

The reports have demonstrated that individuals from the Southeast Asian tribe used these restorative plants to bring back vitality after physical work, all while the benefits of this plant trace back hundreds of years ago.

With every one of these advantages, no big surprise the Western world is effectively inspired by this product.

How to Buy Kratom

The most ideal approach to get Kratom is by purchasing it online.

This plant is accessible in various shops and pharmacies, each with the same expanded medical advantages.

You can order it online and watch it get delivered at your doorstep.

It can be ordered as leaves powder or extract.

Every I product comes with a instructional leaflet.

There are insider facts of wellbeing, vitality, and essentialness covered up in the wildernesses of Southeast Asia.

And now you can have them in your own home!

HDI Health Sponsors

Here all the key sponsors behind HDIForum.org.

MATT MILLER
Matt Miller is an author, columnist, radio host, television commentator and consultant whose work focuses on agenda-setting ideas and creative problem-solving in the public, private and nonprofit sectors. In his public policy work, Miller is a weekly columnist for the Washington Post’s online edition; the host of “Left, Right & Center,” public radio’s popular political week-in-review program; a contributor to MSNBC and CNBC; and a senior fellow at the Center for American Progress.

In his business life, Miller consults to corporations, foundations and government organizations on issues of strategy, policy and communications. Earlier in his career, Miller held senior posts in both government and business. Miller served as a Senior Advisor in the White House Office of Management and Budget from 1993 to 1995, where his duties including managing the staff work for presidential decision making on the budget, and leading management studies both for OMB and the White House. From 1991 to 1992 he was a White House Fellow, serving as Special Assistant to the Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission. Prior to his government service, Mr. Miller did a stint with McKinsey, where from 1989 to 1991 he managed strategy and organization assignments for media and retail companies.

He received his B.A. in economics, magna cum laude, from Brown University in 1983. He received his law degree from Columbia Law School in 1986, where he was a James Kent Scholar and book reviews editor of the Columbia Law Review. Miller is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the Screen Actors Guild.

THOMAS GOETZ
Thomas Goetz serves as Executive Editor of Wired Magazine, in addition to being the author of The Decision Tree blog and of the new book, The Decision Tree: Taking Control of Your Health in the New Era of Personalized Medicine.

Goetz has been a journalist for more than 15 years, first reporting on media and business at the Village Voice, then at the Wall Street Journal, followed by two years at the Industry Standard. He joined Wired Magazine in 2001. As executive editor, his job is to help steer the ship and oversee all editorial efforts.

Goetz also writes about science, health and medicine. In 2005, he earned a Master of Public Health degree from the University of California, Berkeley.

TODD PARK

Todd Park was appointed as United States Chief Technology Officer in March 2012. Before that, he served in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services as Chief Technology Officer. In this role, he was responsible for helping HHS leadership harness the power of data, technology, and innovation to improve the health and welfare of the nation.

Park co-founded Athenahealth in 1997 and co-led its development over the following decade into one of the most innovative, socially-oriented, and successful health information technology companies in the industry. Prior to Athenahealth, he served as a management consultant with Booz Allen & Hamilton, focusing on health care strategy, technology, and operations. He has also served in a volunteer capacity as a Senior Fellow at the Center for American Progress, where he focused on health IT and health reform policy, and as senior health care advisor to Ashoka, a leading global incubator of social entrepreneurs, where he helped start a venture to bring affordable telehealth, drugs, diagnostics, and clean water to rural India. Park graduated magna cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa from Harvard College with an A.B. in economics.

THE HONORABLE KATHLEEN SEBELIUS

Kathleen Sebelius was sworn in as the 21st Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) on April 28, 2009. Since taking office, Secretary Sebelius has led ambitious efforts to improve America’s health and enhance the delivery of human services to some of the nation’s most vulnerable populations, including young children, those with disabilities, and the elderly. As part of the historic Affordable Care Act, Secretary Sebelius is implementing reforms that end many of the insurance industry’s worst abuses, and will help 34 million uninsured Americans get health coverage. Under the law, she is also carrying out policies that put a new focus on wellness and prevention, support the adoption of electronic medical records, and help recruit and train more primary care health providers.

In 2011, Forbes named Secretary Sebelius the 13th most powerful woman in the world. Before her Cabinet appointment in April, 2009, she served as Governor of Kansas beginning in 2003, where she was named one of America’s Top Five Governors by Time Magazine. From 1995 to 2003 she served as Kansas Insurance Commissioner. She was a member of the Kansas House of Representatives from 1987 to 1995.

THE HONORABLE BILL FRIST

Doctor and Senator Bill Frist is both a nationally recognized heart and lung transplant surgeon and former U.S. Senate Majority Leader. Uniquely qualified to discuss the challenges and solutions in health care policy, Senator Frist is consistently recognized among the most influential leaders in American healthcare and is one of only two individuals to rank in the top ten of each of the five inaugural Modern Healthcare Magazine annual surveys of the most powerful people in healthcare in the United States.

Senator Frist majored in health policy at Princeton University’s Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs before graduating with honors from Harvard Medical School and completing surgical training at Massachusetts General Hospital and Stanford. As the founder and Director of the Vanderbilt Multi-Organ Transplant Center, he has performed over 150 heart and lung transplants and authored over 100 peer-reviewed medical articles and chapters, over 400 newspaper articles, and seven books on topics such as bioterrorism, transplantation, and leadership. He is board certified in both general and heart surgery.

Dr. Frist represented Tennessee in the U.S. Senate for 12 years where he served on both Health and Finance committees responsible for writing health legislation. He was elected Majority Leader of the Senate, having served fewer total years in Congress than any person chosen to lead that body in history, and his leadership was instrumental in passage of prescription drug legislation and funding to fight HIV/AIDS at home and around the world.